Lifespan Psychology


Psychosocial Profile

Physical, Environmental, Parental, Family Variables

Mark is three years old, a tall-looking, jovial and active little boy and the second born in a family of three children. His family lives in a middle-class neighborhood. Mark has been watching movies, mostly cartoons, playing video games, sound-reading together with his mother. Over the weekend, Mark's father likes playing with him in the leaving room as they talk. He is inquisitive, and his parents find pleasure in answering him. He has never been diagnosed with any psychological problem.

Educational Background and Work

His mother, Jane is a primary school teacher. His father, John, is an accountant with the Standard Chartered Bank.


Moreover, her mother spends quality time with Mark reciting some English language. The parents had been keen to help Mark acquire language development as early as one-year-old. His parents are very supportive of him and have always ensured that Mark goes to Church, the Catholic to learn Catechism. Besides, his parents have ensured that he is healthy both academically and in sports.

For instance, his parents have bought him video games, movies (cartoon compact discs), and football for play and his father often does all these with him. However, his mother always takes him through charts and numbers from the age 3. Moreover, his father is a member of Institute of Certified Public Accountants and California Golf Club. Both Mark's parents like reading and watching movies, politically impartial, and are staunch Catholics.


The article, titled, "Parenting Behaviors, Perceptions, and Psychosocial Risk: Impacts on Young Children's Development" was written by Frances Page Glascoe and Shirley Leew. The article focuses on child development with a specific focus on the ease with which a child can master basic skills in reading (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). More often than not, delayed language skills for children makes language skills mastery more challenging for children and this affects their learning at the primary school level where language skills form the basis of adequate understanding of the disciplines.

The objective of the study was to examine the parenting behaviors, parenting perceptions, and the risk factors responsible for both optimal and delayed child development. The methodology employed a population of 382 children from the national Brigance Infant and Toddler Screens standardization, and it involved the participation of validation study (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). The study employed parent questionnaires, child testing, and the observations of parent-child connections by the examiners.

The results of the study pointed out that deficiency of positive parenting behaviors combined with negative perceptions of children, with or without psychosocial risk factors, unconstructively affect child development that is evident as early as six months old. The performance gap keeps on widening from childhood, adolescent stage (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). Notably, problematic parenting is a recipe for poor language development in children. Consequently, the outcome of the study underscores the significance of early child development promotion, where parents taking a lead in talking, playing, and reading with their children, and the need for proper interventions about psychosocial risk factors.

Phenomenological Observation

The promotion of early language development for kids is critical for the pediatric primary care. Acquisition of early language development has an impact on the success of the child in education and health. You children often develop critical language and cognitive skills that are pre-requisite to academic literacy long before they can embark on formal schooling. For instance, kids who are not ready for formal schooling at the age of six are more likely to experience academic dwarfism, low self-esteem, problematic behaviors, depression, health problems as well as social isolation than their counterparts who are ready at age six (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). Lack of proper early child development is associated with poor adult health status. Studies have shown that young children, who did not acquire optimal child development and were not well adjusted later, were five times more likely to experience poor health than their counterparts.

Optimal early child development significantly depends on the parenting practices. Therefore, for a child to acquire optimal early development, parents must ensure that their parenting skills are adequate and effective too. For instance, facilitating behaviors such as frequent playing, talking, and reading together with kids are key to an optimal early child development especially for language and cognitive skills (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). For example, a child whose parents do not frequently talk to will always feel isolated and will develop low self-esteem from such parental approach. Similarly, a child whose parents d not frequently take him through a reading exercise often forgets the concepts in comparison to a child who parents do so.

In America, for example, children from advantaged families were found to have better language and cognitive skills than those ailing from low-income family backgrounds. Consequently, there was a big gap after both joined the primary school (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). This prompted the establishment of the Head Start Program that was initiated with the intention of enhancing language and literacy development for the disadvantaged kids. Interestingly, the program has been a success in making the adjustments in the language and cognitive skills development for young children.

The manner in which parents interact with their kids affects language and cognitive skills of young children. Optimal development of language among children is a derivative of stimulating and supportive interactions between parents and their kids. Such interactions allow children to experience responses from adults that are predictable and developmentally appropriate (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). Also, environmental risk factors such as the size of family, maternal mental health, social, and economic influences impact interaction styles of parents. Primary care is an important facet of early child development since it promotes early book-sharing and reading aloud as reiterated by the Reach Out and Read Program. The program has a long-standing legacy for effectively improving language outcomes among older and pre-school aged children especially from the socio-economically disadvantaged families.


Mark's language and cognitive skills are quite above the national average. Primary care and the Head Start Programs are all effective not for only for the disadvantaged children. Primary care is vital development as various studies have concluded especially due to the impetus that they add to the learning process (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). On the other hand, parenting styles that involve effective and positive interactive skills facilitate early child development. However, it is impractical for parents to provide all these favorable conditions for early child development. Therefore, the entire combinations of these factors are more of ideal situations. Nevertheless, young children who experience most of these conditions do well in life in terms of education and health.

However, language development and cognitive skills not only thrive well under the favorable conditions described above. It is worth noting that the performance gap between advantaged and disadvantaged young children is not that uniform. For instance, some children who come from disadvantaged families exhibit better language development and cognitive skills better than those from advantaged families, despite the fact that the degree of exposure differs significantly.

Therefore, the psychosocial factors that young children experience differ from one family to another. Some parents have the opportunity to offer their kids the best situations for early child development, but fail do so due to poor parenting skills. As a matter of fact, children who hail from better socio-economic backgrounds show stronger language development and cognitive skills much earlier than those whose backgrounds are poor (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). The difference attributes to good education background of the parents, especially mothers who spend a lot of time with their kids. Moreover, these kids have access to learning materials, primary care, health care, and technology.

There is a need to adopt better parenting skills such as positive interactive skills that are crucial for language development and cognitive skills in children (Glascoe & Leew, 2010). As the studies have recommended, there is concurrence that parents need to take primary care and other programs such the Head Start seriously so that their kids can achieve better education and health at adulthood and pass the same trend to their successive generations.